Access Democracy Subject/Topic Definitions

Citizen Participation
Civil Military Relations
Political Parties
Special Materials
Women's Participation

Citizen Participation
Materials and web sites that include information touching on all of the elements below (but not any specifically) can be found under the general heading "Citizen Participation".

Training materials such as guidebooks and curriculum guides, as well as advocacy program reports and resources useful for citizen advocates such as directories.

Assess & Evaluate (How to)
Instructional documents specifically addressing how to assess and evaluate citizen participation in an area, such as focus group techniques. Also includes materials on how to assess citizen participation programs.

Civic Education
Documents referring to NDI's Civic Education initiatives, not including Civic Forum (see below).

Civic Forum
NDI's primary means of achieving Civic Education objectives. For more information on Civic Forum, see:

Civil Society
The development of civic organizations or groups of individuals within a limited geographic area, as well as national or international efforts to build civil societies. Includes white papers and presentations on general Civil Society issues, as well as materials on public attitudes and training for civil society development programs.

How governments allow and/or promote citizen participation. Usually cross-classified with Governance è Citizen Participation.

How the media may be used to increase, support or promote citizen participation, as well as how it may hinder these efforts. Also includes links to media/news organizations committed to promoting citizen participation.

NGO Organizational Development
Methods and best practices for creating and developing NGOs.

Laws that dictate whether NGOs may exist/function in a particular country, funding, what activities are allowed /prohibited, reporting procedures etc.

Voter Education
Voter education handbooks, training materials, reports, assessments, etc.

Women, Minority & Youth Participation
Efforts to promote citizen participation among women, youth and minority groups, and assessments of their current level of participation.

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Civil Military Relations (no subtopics)
Includes materials related to the following topics:
  • Strengthening civilian oversight of the military
  • Bridging the divide between civilians and the military
  • Distinguishing between national defense and internal security
  • Building civilian security affairs expertise
  • Building a defense community, including political parties, think tanks, universities and civic associations 

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    Material and web sites that include information regarding the elements below (but not any of them specifically) can be found under the general heading "Elections".

    Electoral Systems & Law
    Describes/evaluates the electoral systems, laws and reform efforts of a particular municipality or across municipalities. May cross reference documents about actual elections and elections processes.

    Human Rights
    Efforts to protect the human rights of citizens during the elections process generally and in specific elections. Also includes reports or discussion of actual or perceived human rights violations in an elections context.

    International Election Monitoring
    Documenting the election monitoring efforts of international groups, as well as training materials for NDI staffers and other delegation members. Materials mainly include especially statements and press releases.

    Media & Elections
    How state-run or independent media organizations effect the election process.

    Nonpartisan Domestic Election Monitoring
    Election day activities, monitoring of vote tabulations (PVTs), media and voter registration and other activities carried out by domestic nonpartisan monitoring groups.

    Political Parties & Electoral Integrity
    Domestic efforts to ensure the integrity of election and political processes, including the efforts of parties and candidates to organize their supporters to guard and promote their ability to compete openly and freely. Activities include organizing parties and candidates to monitor the drawing of election districts, the creation of voter registries and ballot qualification processes, campaigning activities and media behavior. Materials may include assessments, training materials, reports, and white/policy papers.

    Voting & Voter Education
    Voter education handbooks, training materials, reports, assessments, etc.

    Women, Minority & Youth Participation
    Current participation levels of the above groups, as well as efforts to increase their participation in the electoral process, whether as candidates, campaigners, voters, etc.

    Materials and web sites that include information touching on all of the elements below (but not any of them too specifically) can be found under the general heading "Governance".

    Budget Process
    The budget allocations process, including drafting appropriations bills. Materials include handbooks, guides, reports and links to pertinent organizational sites.

    Citizen Participation
    The degree to which citizens are concerned with and participate in government, i.e. Do they vote? Do they voice their concerns about the government? Are they able to voice them? Usually cross-classified with Citizen Participation è Governance, above.

    The role of committees in the legislative process, usually in a particular country, region, or administration.

    Constituent Relations
    How governments interact with their constituents, including how the government presents itself to its citizens. For example, does the government conduct town hall meetings? Are there grievance procedures? Etc.

    Efforts to promote dialogue on constitutional reform issues, assist lawmakers in drafting and reviewing constitutional reform provisions, and educate citizens about proposed changes to their constitutions.

    Intergovernmental Relations
    How a national governmental body relates to other national governments. Does the government participate in intergovernmental associations such as ASEAN, SADIC, etc?

    How governments provide leadership in domestic and international affairs, as well as how the leadership in a country is characterized. How do individuals become leaders in government? How (or not) does the government promote leaders; is it amenable to individual leaders, etc?

    Legislative & Parliamentary Executive Relations
    The relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government.

    Legislative & Parliamentary Structure & Procedure
    Legislative procedures, including the formation of committees, passage of bills and amendments, voting procedures, etc.

    Legislative & Parliamentary Support Services
    The administrative, logistical, and communications issues that affect the ability of governments to function efficiently. Includes the role of technology in government and the availability of items such as staff, computers, phones, etc.

    Local Governance
    Efforts to help structure decentralization policies to create legal environments within which local government can prosper. Also includes information on efforts to increase the capacity of local government to meet these challenges through orientation/training for local officials and the support of the development of associations of local authorities. As similar work and training are done to promote citizen participation in local governance, materials here may cross reference with Civic Education and/or citizen participation.

    Political Parties
    How political parties function within a governmental context, and how this behavior affects governmental procedures. Includes behaviors such as voting the party line, confidence votes, etc.

    Public Integrity (Ethics & Anti-Corruption)
    Efforts to reduce election fraud, promote transparency within political parties and governmental bodies, and strengthen legislative oversight of the executive. Also includes efforts to develop legislative, ministerial and civil service codes of conduct, as well as ethics training materials and reports.

    Women, Minority & Youth Participation
    Efforts to assess and promote the participation of the above groups in the political process.